Texas Archaeology

The History Of Texas

Texas is a major agricultural state in the U.S. and is also regarded as an industrial giant. It follows Alaska in terms of land area and ranks ahead of other states in certain categories such as cotton, sheep, cattle, and oil. Its farms and ranches also produced dairy products, poultry and eggs, rice, hay, wheat, greenhouse and nursery products, peanuts, sugar cane and a wide variety of vegetables and fruits.

In 1845, Texas became the 28th U.S. State following a congress bill that allowed the annexation of the Republic of Texas. The move was strongly opposed by Mexico which then caused the eruption of the Mexican-American war.

Generally speaking, the history of Texas can be based on five important timelines including its statehood during the period of 1845 to 1860.

  1. The French Colonization Of Texas, 1684 – 1689

The French occupation of Texas started with the establishment of a French settlement on the Texas coast in 1685 by French explorer Robert Cavelier de la Salle. The settlement, which was located on the right bank of southern Victorian County’s Garcitas Creek, has been called Fort St. Louis. La Salle intended to build the colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River but faulty maps and geography made him anchor his ships 400 miles to the west, off the coast of Texas. The French colony managed to survive until 1688.

  1. The Spanish Colonization Of Texas, 1690 – 1821

The Spanish Colonial era in Texas started with a system of presidios and missions which had aimed to spread Christianity and to establish Spanish control over the region. During the 1680s, the first among these Spanish missions were established near present-day El Paso, San Angelo and Presidio. San Antonio, which was founded in 1718, had become the most successful settlement. It also became the capital of Texas at the end of the French and Indian War when the French handed over Louisiana to Spain.

  1. Mexican Texas, 1821 – 1836

This is the period when Texas was part of Mexico and the historiographical name Mexican Texas was used. In the beginning, Mexican Texas followed the Spanish Texas system of government. Later on, it adopted a federal structure as a result of the 1824 Constitution of Mexico. After the violent Battle of Velasco on June 26, 1832, the people of Texas decided to declare their independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836. Texas became an independent government and carried the name Republic of Texas following the end of the Texas Revolution in 1836 and the Battle of San Jacinto. However, Mexico refused to recognize this independence.

  1. Republic of Texas, 1836 – 1845

This independent sovereign country in North America was bordered in the west and southwest by Mexico, in the southeast by the Gulf of Mexico, in the east and northeast by Arkansas and Louisiana, and in the north by Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas and Oklahoma. The citizens of the Republic were called Texians.

  1. Texas As A U.S. State, 1845 – 1860

In 1844, elected U.S. president James K. Polk made a promise to annex Texas. Prior to his election, there were already negotiations being made with Texas by outgoing president John Tyler. On February 26, 1845, the U.S. Congress approved the annexation. Five months later, the Texas legislature approved the annexation and created a state constitution. In October, residents of Texas approved the annexation and the new state constitution. On December 29, 1845, Texas officially joined the United States and became the nation’s 28th State.